General-Total Cooling Ventilation air conditioning

It is necessary and necessary to maintain the building's internal climate to levels tolerable by the human body in order to achieve a pleasant and healthy stay of people indoors as their residence time in the buildings amounts to 90% for the inhabitants of modern urban centers.

Factors identifying the embankment of a building
: the temperature of the air and its surfaces,
relative humidity,
the speed of air,
the concentration of particulates and pollutants in the air, the level of illumination, and
the noise level
Indoor air temperature, for people dressed, seated and without particularly intense physical activity, recommended: 20 to 21 ° C, in air-conditioned rooms, the temperature considered appropriate for all seasons is 22 - 23 ° C. This is because air movement creates an additional cooling sensation that has to be compensated by a higher temperature. for people with physical activity the appropriate temperature is less the more severe the nature of work is. Depending on this, the thermal comfort temperatures range from 12 ° C to 21 ° C
Uniform temperature distribution in a space.
Generally, temperature differences of more than 4 ° C between room areas and temperature differences greater than 3 ° C between the floor and 1.8 meters above the floor (habitation zone) are not allowed. Temperature of the surfaces surrounding the space. In general, the temperature difference between the surfaces and the room air must not exceed 4 ° C.
Moisture:
It depends directly on its temperature and the type of work performed on it and is determined by the relative humidity of the air. The moisture of a space directly affects the sweat rate of the human body, which is essentially a regulating factor for the elimination of heat from the human body. It is important to avoid situations that prevent evaporation from the human body, ie high temperatures in combination with high humidity, because then discomfort and choking are caused. Thus, when the air temperature is 20 ° C, the lower relative humidity limit is 30% (dust formation, static electricity generation, mucus drying) and up to 70% (condensation, mold formation, unpleasant odors). Generally, the recommended relative humidity levels in stays and work are 40-60% during the summer.
Acceptable intensity of air speed indoors: depends on
many factors (eg, the type of space, the density of the living people
and work within the space, from their stay in the place):
Generally the permissible air velocity for temperatures of 20 - 27 ° C and for sedentary work
is about 0.15 to 0.25 m / s.
In places with high density where people are constantly moving (eg commercially
shops) a higher air velocity is allowed.
Excessively low air velocities of less than 0.08 m / s must be
are avoided, because they cause a feeling of stagnant air that is the same annoying.
In fact, the ideal speed of air for the comfort of people is
about 0.13 m / s, but in the majority of cases it is difficult to achieve.
The renewal of air on the premises of buildings is necessary for delivery
oxygen, dilution of carbon dioxide concentration and various odors
produced by human activity
The adjustment of the required conditions of temperature, humidity, motion and air purity is achieved by using suitable devices that are the corresponding cooling, humidification, ventilation and air purification systems. The operation of each system and the achievement of the desired result is based on a series of processes that are:
Cooling:
. It is the process by which thermal energy (heat) is removed from the air and the surfaces of the space in order to reduce and maintain the room temperature to the desired limits.
Moisture:
It is the process by which moisture (vapor) is added to the air in the room in order to increase and maintain the relative humidity of the room at desired values.
Dehumidification:
It is the process by which moisture (vapor) is removed from the air of the space in order to reduce and maintain the relative humidity of the space at desired levels. Ventilation. It is the process by which fresh outdoor air (air of the natural environment) is added to the air in order to maintain the quality of the indoor air at the desired limits.
Ventilation:
It is the process by which an amount of internal air is removed to remove particles, odors and pollutants. Thisquantityisreplenishedby the ventilationsystem
Cleaning:
It is the process by which the internal air passes through filter devices and is filtered (cleaned). The filters hold particles and odors, and the air is then recirculated indoors in order to maintain its quality at the desired limits.
The air conditioning:
It is a complex process that consists of the whole or the combination of the processes developed previously. This process makes it possible to completely adjust the required internal conditions, which classifies the air conditioning systems in the integrated building envelope management systems.
The mission of cooling systems is to provide the required amounts of cooling energy to meet the cooling requirements of the buildings and to ensure the desired "thermal comfort" conditions. The cooling systems of a building are divided into two categories:
• local:
systems in which cooling is produced in a cooling machine located at some point in the space to be cooled and delivers the cooling produced directly into the space without the intermediation of a means of transport. They are characterized by simplicity and ease of installation even in existing buildings.
• the centralones. :
a system in which all of the required cooling energy of the building or building block is produced by refrigeration machinery and then distributed by means of an intermediate heat carrier to the chilled premises. They are characterized by a wide variety of devices and alternative manufacturing solutions and consist of three sub-systems: • Production • Distribution • Emission / disposal

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